Articles By Quadrant

The following list of books and articles is organized around the four quadrants of the Competing Values Framework. The four quadrants represent the four different forms of innovation. This reading list provides resources for exploring these various forms of innovation in greater detail.

Collaborate Quadrant Readings

Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith (1993). The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-Performance Organization. New York: HarperBusiness.
This highly readable book is filled with guidelines and examples for developing high-performance teams that share values and goals. In particular, the authors encourage building community, mutual accountability, and developing capabilities on the job.

Dorothy Leonard (1995). Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Harvard Business School professor Leonard explores how the “knowledge assets” of a firm lead to the creation of new products. This book has particularly helpful chapters on identifying individual “signature skills” and combining people into effective, diverse combinations that can build core capabilities.

Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton (2000). The Knowing-Doing Gap. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Stanford professors Pfeffer and Sutton point out that businesses spend too much time studying how to gather knowledge instead of using it. Based on years of research, this book provides useful recommendations on how to help an organization develop ability through a culture that supports hands-on experimentation and distributed decision-making in a cooperative, team-minded atmosphere.

Franklin Becker and Fritz Steele (1995). Workplace by Design: Mapping the High-Performance Workscape. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This book looks at how to create workspaces that can encourage creativity. It covers issues related to workflow, status and identity, flexibility, teams, health factors, and virtual workers.

Georg von Krosh, Kazuo Ichijo, and Ikujiro Nonaka (2000). Enabling Knowledge Creation: How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the Power of Innovation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
This book discusses the conditions that must be present in an organization to create the types of knowledge that lead to value creation. It provides practical approaches for developing and harvesting knowledge as a organization-wide activity.

Etienne Wenger, Richard A. McDermott, and William Snyder (2002). Cultivating Communities of Practice. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
This book offers methods and examples of how to develop and support communities of practice that can create, share, and apply knowledge. It also outlines the pitfalls and benefits of such communities.

Create Quadrant Readings

James M. Higgins (1994). 101 Creative Problem Solving Techniques: The Handbook of New Ideas for Business. Winter Park, FL: New Management Publishing Company.
This book is a brilliantly integrated collection of useful creativity tools and techniques. It indexes when to use what tools and gives detailed explanations of how to facilitate them.

Gordon MacKenzie (1998). Orbiting the Giant Hairball: A Corporate Fool’s Guide to Surviving with Grace. New York: Viking.
An autobiography of sorts, this book offers a collection of stories, parables, and insights on the nature of personal creativity within organizational settings. A delightful and inspiring read.

Roger Von Oech (1998). A Whack on the Side of the Head. New York: Warner Books.
One of the best “how-to” books around. Von Oech provides a simple method for being creative in different situations.

Doug Hall (1996). Jump Start Your Brain. New York: Warner Books.
Hall, an expert at running jumpstarting retreats, suggests how to use groups of “ordinary” people-rather than specialized experts or designers-in the development of new products and services.

Tom Kelley (2001). The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America’s Leading Design Firm. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
(Also see the video about their brainstorming process: Jack Smith, The Deep Dive: One Company’s Secret Weapon for Innovation, Nightline with Ted Koppel (ABC News Videos, July 13, 1999), Television program. Available from ABC News Store, 800-505-6139, Item # N990713.).
IDEO may be the premiere new product design firm in the world. This book lays out how the company’s management and employees run brainstorming sessions, work in groups, create prototypes, design their work environment, and encourage innovation

Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad (1994). Competing for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
This book proposes that the future belongs to those firms that can get there first. It provides suggestions on how companies can develop unique core competencies that will allow them to shape the future rather than following it.

Peter Schwartz (1996). The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World. New York: Doubleday.
Futurist Schwartz introduces a revolutionary approach to developing strategic foresight. This book provides useful methods (such as scenario planning) for envisioning the future first.

Philip Evans and Thomas Wurster (2000). Blown to Bits: How the New Economics of Information Transforms Strategy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
This book spells out how the Internet and other technologies change the competitive landscape of markets where large incumbent firms usually enjoy the competitive advantages of greater reach. These authors suggest new ways of using the Internet to support partnering and offer strategies for firms of all sizes to maneuver effectively in this new space.

B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore (1999). The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre and Every Business a Stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
This book proposes that the ultimate value a company offers is the “theatrical” experience that accompanies any product or service. Because customers are willing to pay extra for memorable, distinctive, or customized experiences, companies should consider these experiences to be an additional outlet for creating value.

Compete Quadrant Readings

Yves Doz and Gary Hamel (1998). Alliance Advantage: The Art of Creating Value through Partnering. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
This book suggests that globalization and mergers have made it almost impossible for firms to complete without strong allies. It gives practical advice on how to evaluate, create, and maintain alliances of all types.

Robert G. Cooper, Scott J. Edgett, and Elko J. Kleinschmidt (1998). Portfolio Management for New Products. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
This is a “must have” book for anyone who is serious about establishing an integrated process for launching and funding initiatives with a portfolio method. Learn about how investors and financial departments evaluate new ideas and gain the upper hand in getting your projects funded.

W. Chan Kim and René Mauborgne (2000, September-October). Knowing a Winning Business Idea When You See One. Harvard Business Review (Reprint number 00510).
This article provides some key insights into why certain products and services are likely to succeed in the marketplace. It provides a straightforward framework for picking winners.

Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema (1993, January-February). Customer Intimacy and Other Value Disciplines. Harvard Business Review (Reprint number 93107).
This article offers a good overview of the importance of selecting practices to achieve appropriate forms of value. Examples illustrate their three “value disciplines” and the practices that support these outcomes.

Control Quadrant Readings

Kent Beck (2000). Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
This book offers the original, definitive description of “Extreme Programming,” the software version of modular design and development. Other books in this series are also helpful.

Michael Schrage (2000). Serious Play: How the World’s Best Companies Simulate to Innovate. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Schrage, a leading business technology journalist, reviews how models, prototypes, and simulations are blurring the boundary between designing a new product and manufacturing it. Learn about the emerging technologies and methodologies that enable rapid prototyping and platform innovation.

Preston Smith and Donald Reinertsen (1997). Developing Products in Half the Time. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
This book combines methods for effective resource use with techniques for accelerating product development. It describes the applications and limitations of numerous practical tools for reducing cycle time.

Jean Philippe Deschamps and P. Ranganath Mayak (1995). Product Juggernauts: How Companies Mobilize to Generate a Stream of Market Winners. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
This book looks at the wide array of key components that factor into the ongoing processes of making a product a winner. It integrates product design, manufacturing, sales, and customer service into a system to refine, adapt, and improve existing products and to create new ones. It includes material on Toyota as well.

Phillip H. Francis (2000). Product Creation: The Heart of the Enterprise from Engineering to E-Commerce. New York: Free Press.
Francis asserts that all functions in the company must work as a team to create new products. He outlines all the processes-and potential difficulties-of creating new products so that non-engineers can understand and support product development effectively.

Durward K. Sobek, II, Jeffrey K. Liker, and Allen C. Ward (1998, July-August). Another Look at How Toyota Integrates Product Development. Harvard Business Review (Reprint number 98409).
This article offers a very clear breakdown of the ways that Toyota structures and integrates their product development process through carefully balanced mechanisms.